Suen-- classification techniques - statistical pattern recognition, neural networks and their relations, J. Let us represent the character to be recognized as a point P in N-dimensional feature space. Given the nature of this project, we decided to have a short scope and hence kept our analysis simple. Suen; classification techniques - statistical pattern recognition, neural networks and their relations, J. Since 1976, bibliographic references are normalized by the isbd 2 according to a common formalism called unimarc 3. The first experiments leaded on scientific documents are very encouraging. Libraries are faced with this problem to convert their old paper catalogues into a data processing format in which they are more readily accessible to the readers.
Two classes of approaches are first studied and discussed in general terms: data-driven and model-driven. Dengel; offline handwritten word recognition using hidden Markov models, A. The E-mail message field is required. The classification is a minimum least-squares approach based on polynomials. Dori, Self-Structural Syntax-Directed Pattern Recognition of Dimensioning Components in Engineering Drawings 26 pages, 13 figures D.
O'Gorman, An Overview of Techniques for Graphics Recognition 40 pages, 17 figures, 4 tables O. Figure 3 b shows a 3x3 mask that is used to move over the input image during the first pass and then on the intermediate image during the second pass. Our understanding of these techniques let us to believe that a hybrid model is a more appropriate solution for structure extraction. In this paper, we propose two novel methods to remove handwritten annotations that are specifically located in between-text-lines and inside-text-line regions. This angle has to be detected and once this is detected, it can be corrected using an affine transformation. Their implementation as a data representation framework will be shown. The intermediate result is an image, which consists of pixels that are marked for deletion and other pixels that are left as in the original input image.
This is a crucial step in moment based recognition methods and can be calculated from a vertical projection of the bounding rectangle. The process of handwriting recognition involves extraction of some defined characteristics called features to classify an unknown handwritten character into one of the known classes. Image Binarization Binarization is a technique by which the gray scale images are converted to binary images. The testing data contained a separate set of 50 characters. The described system can be efficiently adapted to new domains or different languages.
Complexities An astute reader will have noticed from our character set, that some characters closely resemble another character in our chosen set. So, we did not explore this problem in great detail and our documents are scanned without introducing skew. Nartker et al; automatic signature verification, S. Thanks to its transparency, it allows a better representation of the model elements and the relationships between the logical and the physical components. Mori, Structural Analysis and Description of Curves by Quasi--Topological Features and Singular Points 51 pages, 27 figures, 4 tables T.
Shridhar and Kimura; multilingual document recognition, L. Suen; classification techniques - statistical pattern recognition, neural networks and their relations, J. Baird, Hand Book of Character Recognition and Document Image Analysis,World Scientific,Singapoer 1997. This handbook with contributions by eminent experts, presents both the theoretical and practical aspects at an introductory level wherever possible. The proposed system presents a recognition system of both handwritten courtesy amount and signature.
Future Work Our efforts to correct skew demanded more time and effort, than we anticipated and hence we decided to incorporate skew correction in future. Optical character recognition and document image analysis have become very important areas with a fast growing number of researchers in the field. Figure 8 shows our test inputs and their corresponding recognized outputs. Some results using this thinning algorithm are shown in fig. Haller, Syntactic Analysis of Context Free Plex Languages for Pattern Recognition 20 pages, 6 figures D. Figure 2 shows the flow of our approach. The language has 31 basic alphabets 12 vowels, 18 consonants and a special consonant and the written script is comprised of 247 characters.
Taghva-- technical drawing analysis - including vectorization, D. On the other hand, to remove the inside-text-line annotations, a novel idea of distinguishing between handwritten annotations and machine printed text is proposed, which involves the extraction of three features for the connected components merged at word level from every detected printed text line. Nagy, Towards a Structured Document Image Utility 15 pages, 4 figures A. As earlier, the pixel is deleted only when all the conditions are satisfied. In our approach, we assumed a fixed size 12 pt.
The system is based on the Gamera framework for document image analysis. Lorette, Off-line Identification with Handwritten Signature Images: Survey and Perspectives 14 pages, 4 figures, 1 table R. Two setups have been tested; the rst uses one tree per logical element, the second one uses a single tree for all the logical elements we want to recognise. In this project, we have developed a simple optical character recognition application for Tamil characters. To remove between-text-line annotations, a two stage algorithm is proposed, which detects the base line of the printed text lines using the analysis of connected components and removes the annotations with the help of statistically computed distance between the text line regions. Conclusion A simple character recognition application was successfully developed for Tamil characters and was found to perform reasonably well with sufficient accuracy results are shown in tables 2 and 3. The experiments performed on two kinds of documents: scientific with a macro-structure and historical with micro-structures show how this standard choice can maintain the coherence of data along all the processing chain.
Shridhar and Kimura; multilingual document recognition, L. Skew Detection and Estimation During the scanning operation, a certain amount of image skew is unavoidable especially when large number of documents are to be scanned in a limited amount of time. Header: Header: Name Name Body: Body: Affiliation Affiliation Legend Legend Aggregation Body Path Pointing relation Cardinality 1. North American Fuzzy Information Processing Sot. Ambiguities and exceptions remain embedded.