So Knox and others attempted to develop performance tests that would measure the intellectual skills deemed essential for successful immigration. Ellis Island represented an attempt to systematize the immigration process into the United States. Do such tests truly measure intelligence in a culture-free or even culture-fair way? Completing the first biography of this unjustly overlooked figure, John T. I knew what the test was, but I knew nothing of its origins. The equivalent term in French is arriéré, meaning backward, a word used colloquially in English, too. Their paper discussed methodological and theoretical considerations raised by the block-tapping task devised many years before by Philip Michael Corsi, a research student at the Montreal Neurological Institute.
I have pieced together what is known about his life and work from published and unpublished sources. A second thing that has changed is social attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities. Richardson discusses the eugenics movement that flourished during this period and, most significantly, provides a comprehensive history of intelligence testing in the first half of the 20th century. Except for the most recent generation, siblings have been omitted. Practical Issues in Intelligence Testing 9. He is an academician of the U.
Harry White testing a male emigrant 7. He then recounts the development of intelligence tests by Knox and his colleagues and the publication of their research, which captured the attention of a nation. The first two terms are close synonyms defective and deficient can both mean lacking an essential part or quality or falling short that simply describe the condition of having a limited mental capacity. Whether adapted to measure intelligence and performance in children, military recruits, neurological and psychiatric patients, or the average job applicant, Knox's pioneering methods deserve in-depth investigation that situates his discoveries within contemporary psychological practice. In part 3, I describe the process by which Knox and his colleagues developed their own performance tests, and I introduce the tests themselves in chapter 6. He then recounts the development of intelligence tests by Knox and his colleagues and the widely-discussed publication of their research.
Richardson concludes with the development of Knox's work in later decades and its changing application in conjunction with modern psychological theory. Coast Defense Journal 15 4 : 88—93. Howard Andrew Knox, pioneer of psychological testing. The terms mental defectiveness, mental deficiency, and mental retardation appear to have come into widespread usage toward the end of the nineteenth century. In part 2, I describe the context of his work there. He describes the conditions that gave rise to intelligence testing, including the public's concern that the United States was opening its doors to the mentally unfit. For example, Jennie Mahaffy was married to Howard Reuben Knox, then to Leander Blackwell, and then to C.
As I explain in chapter 9, Knox himself played no further part in this story after he left Ellis Island in 1916. Grob 1966:xiii Similarly, I will use such terms as mental defectiveness, mental deficiency, mental retardation, idiots, imbeciles, and the feebleminded, because these were the terms used both by professionals and the general public at the time in question. Along with the sense of the immense importance of further. An early proponent of nonverbal intelligence testing largely through the use of formboards and picture puzzles , Knox developed an evaluative approach that informs the techniques of practitioners and researchers today. Popularizing the Work at Ellis Island 8. In the end, Richardson writes: The tests are artifacts constructed within a specific culture, and they cannot be expected to transfer to different cultures from the one in which they were constructed. Several pages into the paper by Berch and his colleagues, we read a footnote, the most important part of which said: Knox 1914 developed a block-tapping task that has subsequently become known as the Knox Cubes Imitation Test.
Stahnisch, University of Calgary, Alberta John Richardson's work does much to bring us a new look at our past. They required too much knowledge of a language and culture that were foreign to, well, foreigners. When many people think of immigrants disembarking at Ellis Island a century ago, they imagine swarms of recent arrivals being examined for infectious diseases and many being quarantined or turned away because they were deemed a threat to public health. I am honored to have had the opportunity to write this brief foreword, and I am delighted that I could be one of the first to read this important book. However, one person who has been almost completely overlooked in these accounts is Howard Andrew Knox.
I am also grateful to William H. But he never fully addresses why Knox did not quite make it into the ranks of the pantheon of the truly famous, such as Goddard and Yerkes. It should be noted that with the exception of being included as a subtest in several intelligence scales e. He describes the conditions that gave rise to intelligence testing, including the public's concern that the United States was opening its doors to the mentally unfit. Howard Andrew Knox 1885--1949 served as assistant surgeon at Ellis Island during the 1910s, administering a range of verbal and nonverbal tests to determine the mental capacity of potential immigrants. Richardson, former president of the International Society for the History of the Neurosciences, takes stock of Knox's understanding of intelligence and his legacy beyond Ellis Island. Summary Howard Andrew Knox 1885-1949 served as assistant surgeon at Ellis Island during the 1910s, administering a range of verbal and nonverbal tests for the mental capacity of potential immigrants.
Army from 1908 to 1911 to give an idea of what kind of person Knox was when he went to work at Ellis Island in 1912. Excellent accounts have been written of their lives and work Fancher 1998; Frank 1983; Gillham 2001; Minton 1988; J. An early proponent of nonverbal intelligence testing largely through the use of formboards and picture puzzles , Knox developed an evaluative approach that today informs the techniques of practitioners and researchers. Moreover, incisive critiques have been written of how intelligence tests have been constructed, how they have been administered, and how the results have been interpreted Gould 1981; Kamin 1974. Berch, Krikorian, and Huha 1998:322 This was curious to us because, despite our many years of research into short-term memory, neither of us had ever heard of the Knox Cubes Imitation Test.
Popularizing the Work at Ellis Island 8. His book tells of an important chapter in American history and psychology and provides new insights into our ongoing struggles to understand the expression of our cognitive abilities and limitations. Baker, The University of Akron and the Center for the History of Psychology Howard Andrew Knox is comprehensive and compelling. In fact, the audience for this book ranges from scholars in American history, historians of science, and public and population health researchers to a wide general readership. Their work presents a useful and extremely human portrait of psychological testing and its limits, particularly the predicament of the people examined at Ellis Island. Richardson concludes with the development of Knox's work in later decades and its changing application in conjunction with modern psychological theory. Was it that he simply did not get cited in the literature on psychological testing when he should have been? In chapter 8, I discuss the various practical issues in intelligence testing that Knox and his colleagues described in their various publications.
In the late 1800s this view of mental deficiency was encouraged by a more general idea called the theory of recapitulation. Numbers refer to successive marriages. Also, no one can read the book without reflecting on the ethics of the kinds of mental testing that were done on immigrants to the United States. Academy of Social Sciences, a fellow of the British Psychological Society, and a fellow of the Society for Research into Higher Education. In 1888 he was appointed as the founding president of Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. Consulting published and unpublished sources, Richardson establishes a chronology of Knox's life, including details of his medical training and his time as a physician for the U. Richardson, former president of the International Society for the History of the Neurosciences, takes stock of Knox's understanding of intelligence and his legacy beyond Ellis Island.