However, given the critical role of riparian ecosystem functions in landscapes, as well as the strong links between riparian ecosystems and human well-being, considerable means, motives and opportunities for strategically planned adaptation to climate change also exist. Conversion of the Danube river floodplains through dyke construction for farming and other development has cut off 95, 75 and 28% of the floodplains of the upper Danube, the lower Danube and the Danube delta, respectively. This article revisits four Australian framework policies with implications for ecologically sustainable development to consider lessons for climate change adaptation. Hydrometeorological Hazards: Interfacing science and policy is the first volume of a series which will gather scientific and policy-related knowledge related to climate-related extreme events. It therefore considers the human rights that can be impacted through the loss of ecosystem services and also the practical relationships between certain rights and ecosystem services. Vulnerable rural communities face climate change-related shifts in rainfall patterns, particularly droughts and floods.
Integrated River Basin Management in the Conchos River Basin, Mexico: A Freshwater Climate Change Adaptation Study 8. As a result, adaptation thinking emphasizes the shifting relationship between institutions and ecosystems. This book provides a handbook for those who want to understand and contribute to meeting this challenge. And, last but not least, tools are suggested for teaching agricultural and food ethics. Respondents generally perceived that the rainy season had changed in the past 5 years, with the season now beginning in December and ending in March. Autonomous adaptation measures assessed include: modernization of irrigation practices; pilot sustainable watershed management projects in the upper basin; development of an environmental flow assessment and a proposal to improve water allocation; and the creation of the Inter-institutional Working Group as a basin organization. Factors deserving further research and policy attention include leadership, cultural change and capacity building; embedding sustainability in structures and processes; development of a long term evidence based approach; strengthening decentralised implementation arrangements; and evaluation of policy integration initiatives.
As adaptation becomes more tightly integrated into the range of responses to climate change, understanding how knowledge of climate change impacts and vulnerabilities can be effectively used is essential both to direct research and to support action. Translocation of species and control of invasive species are the main adaptations. It is concluded that rather than a focus on only a few interventions, such as environmental flows, better adaptation practice requires deployment of a suite of different but complementary measures that spreads risk and maximizes resilience to climate variability and change. Some adaptation practices may provide unexpected livelihood benefits, such as the introduction of traditional flood mitigation measures in China leading to reductions in both the physical and the economic vulnera- bilities of local communities Yu et al. Antecedent traditions include theories of vulnerability as entitlement failure and theories of hazard. The Yangtze is the largest river basin in China and home to over 400 million people. We review key pathways for ecological and human adaptation for the maintenance, restoration and enhancement of riparian ecosystem functions, goods and services and present emerging principles for planned adaptation.
Embracing Uncertainty in Freshwater Climate Change Adaptation: A Natural History Approach Produkty podobne:. Water and Climate Change Adaptation2. The need for planned adaptation of and for riparian ecosystems is likely to be strengthened as the importance of many riparian ecosystem functions, goods and services will grow under a changing climate. The full suite of services, benefits and beneficiaries if humans and the natural environment are to coexist in the long-term have not been systematically included in decision making and management. National-level incorporation of sustainable development goals has propelled interest in large-scale assessments of ecosystem services which can help address complex problems of ecosystem change Bateman et al. We are, however, faced with hard choices about hazard mitigation: should we continue to build dikes and walls to protect ourselves against floods and coastal hazards — though we have seen the limits of these — or should we consider alternative, ecosystem-based solutions? Vulnerability is the state of susceptibility to harm from exposure to stresses associated with environmental and social change and from the absence of capacity to adapt. This is no surprise if you also see these key-factors simply as common sense factors.
Nevertheless, the created aridity spatial maps of trend analysis presented with differentiations, especially in the mountainous areas where an extreme downward trend is appeared. Information on biodiversity, analyses of the socio-ecological system, and climate change projections are presented to illustrate the disjunction between trends in environmental health and the institutions established to manage the Basin sustainably. Empirical assessments at the national, catchment and regional levels are used to critically appraise this systemic approach, and the merits and potential limitations are presented. Population increase and a decrease in the resource base due to predicted decreased rainfall will lead to over exploitation of the resource base. Effects of hydrological isolation on species distribution is an active research area in biodiversity protection and management. The process by which adaptations are to be judged at different scales will involve new and challenging institutional processes.
In recognition of this importance, stakeholders e. In this context of international competition, the sidelining of natural ecosystems in water resources management is likely to be exacerbated. Draws on contemporary theory, lessons from case examples to highlight roles of research, community engagement in coastal management. In assessing ongoing floodplain restoration work that commenced in 1993, this paper finds the following. This entails a widening of the water resource perception to include the various fractions of rainfall.
The larger wetlands of Sub-Saharan Africa, cover 2,072,775 km2 9. We found that while management options are undertaken as a response to existing degradation, they can be used as building blocks for a climate change adaptation strategy that considers a range of different but complementary measures to better manage climate-related risk. The volume also contains a global overview of the lessons derived from these experiences. The sectoral silos identified were similar to those at the international scale. The current study is focused on 3 selected agricultural areas widespread in Greece, the Ardas River basin in North-eastern Greece, the Sperchios River basin in central Greece, and the Geropotamos River basin in Crete Island in South Greece that have different climate characteristics due to their location, as well as complex topography. This study aims to verify whether herbivorous waterbirds abundance is associated with lake connectivity using synchronous survey data in 23 lakes for the period of 2004—2015.
This book critically discusses climate-resilient development in the context of current deficiencies of multilateral climate management strategies and processes. The research presented here recommends more systematic adoption of the better policy integration practices identified at the national scale. In some instance the nation has embraced the opportunities offered with ecosystem services forming the core of several large-scale reforms and collaborations that have considered dependence of humans on ecosystems. Moreover, ecosystem-based adaptation projects have focused on only a few relevant types of ecosystems. A number of long-standing measures for management of freshwater ecosystems were examined to see whether they continue to provide benefits for conservation as hydrology changes with the climate. To adapt to thesechanges, the tasks of municipalities and cities are to implementpolicies and strategies for changes in land use and coastalmanagement as part of their future development. Then the study identified most important strategic issues, prioritized and disaggregated by sector.
Dams affect rivers and other freshwater ecosystems around the world. Water balance in turn impacts on the services of water provision through control of infiltration soil water used in transpiration and river runoff. Governance systems play a key role in the sustainable management of resources. To put this into context, income diversification, particularly in the form of employment in clothing production, provides a stable back-up income for farmers amidst environmental uncertainty. Eight main lessons were identified for more effective adaptation: providing multiple benefits; communicating opportunities for adaptation; promoting local ownership; providing immediate benefits; undertaking adaptive management; linking local, national and global institutions; providing consistent funding for adaptation; and seizing policy reform windows. Riparian ecosystems in the 21st century are likely to play a critical role in determining the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change, and in influencing the capacity of these systems to adapt.